STU Health & Medical Enzyme Conversion Description Discussion Nursing Assignment Help

Enzyme Conversion Description

After studying Module 2: Lecture Materials & Resources, submit the following:

  • Starting with the precursor substance tyrosine or tryptophan, identify and briefly describe each chemical step required to create each neurotransmitter. 

Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:
Creating assignments and providing answers for medical college students is a crucial task in the role of a medical professor. In this case, the assignment focuses on the enzymatic conversion of precursor substances into neurotransmitters. Precursor substances, such as tyrosine or tryptophan, undergo specific chemical steps to form various neurotransmitters. Let’s explore the process involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters from these precursor substances.

Answer:
1. Tyrosine to Dopamine:
Tyrosine is first converted into L-DOPA through the action of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. This conversion involves the hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of tyrosine. The enzyme requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor.

Next, L-DOPA is decarboxylated by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) to form dopamine. This reaction removes the carboxyl group from the L-DOPA molecule.

2. Tyrosine to Norepinephrine and Epinephrine:
After the formation of dopamine, it can be further converted into norepinephrine and epinephrine. The conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine involves the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase, which adds a hydroxyl group to the β-carbon of dopamine.

Norepinephrine can either be stored and utilized as a neurotransmitter or can be further converted to epinephrine. The conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine requires the enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). This enzyme transfers a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) to the oxygen atom of norepinephrine, resulting in the formation of epinephrine.

3. Tryptophan to Serotonin:
Tryptophan is first hydroxylated by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase. This enzyme adds a hydroxyl group to the 5th position of tryptophan, forming 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP).

Next, 5-HTP is decarboxylated by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) to form serotonin. This decarboxylation step removes the carboxyl group from 5-HTP.

These chemical steps represent the enzymatic conversions involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters from the precursor substances tyrosine and tryptophan. The precise regulation and activity of the specific enzymes involved in these conversions play a crucial role in maintaining neurotransmitter balance and function within the central nervous system.

Share This Post

Email
WhatsApp
Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn
Pinterest
Reddit

Order a Similar Paper and get 15% Discount on your First Order

Related Questions

Unit 3 focused on both the nervous and endocrine systems. Nursing Assignment Help

Unit 3 focused on both the nervous and endocrine systems. Both are essential communication systems for the body and play vital roles in homeostatic balance. The endocrine system produces chemical messengers that travel throughout the body via the circulatory system and interact with receptor cells. If the interaction cannot occur,

Aubre R. presents as a new patient to your practice having Nursing Assignment Help

Aubre R. presents as a new patient to your practice having recently relocated from rural Tennessee. She is 68 years old and complains of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with abdominal cramping and frequent diarrhea with occasional constipation. She has a history of domestic violence with resultant anxiety requiring inpatient hospitalization

Students are required to maintain weekly reflective Nursing Assignment Help

Students are required to maintain weekly reflective narratives throughout the course to combine into one course-long reflective journal that integrates leadership and inquiry into current practice as it applies to the Professional Capstone and Practicum course. In your journal, you will reflect on the personal knowledge and skills gained throughout

Please respond to one discussion post. Compare your Nursing Assignment Help

Please respond to one discussion post. Compare your experience with the Active Verbs activity with that of your peer. Was their experience with the activity similar to yours? If they had similar experiences with the questions, discuss why you think you had similar outcomes. If they had different experiences with

The inquiry seeks assistance from nutrition specialists or Nursing Assignment Help

The inquiry seeks assistance from nutrition specialists or majors to formulate a nutrition plan assignment for a 65-year-old patient grappling with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). GERD is a chronic condition characterized by the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus, leading to symptoms like heartburn and discomfort. Crafting an effective