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Universal newborn hearing screening is standard in the United States. Infants are initially screened using either otoacoustic emission or auditory brainstem response testing. The otoacoustic emission test is easier to perform, requires less training, but is more prone to incorrect results due to middle or inner ear problems or if the hearing loss is not due to cochlear dysfunction. The auditory brainstem response test is more difficult to perform since the child needs to be asleep and it requires more training for the person performing the test. It is more accurate though. If a child does not pass their initial screening, they are then tested again using a manual form of the auditory brainstem response test to confirm the results (Batshaw, 2019).
Hearing loss, when identified early, should not lead to significant language delays. Children that are hard of hearing can use hearing aids or cochlear implants to improve their ability to hear and therefore develop their spoken vocabulary. Children that are not able to use these devices or those that are deaf can instead use nonverbal communication, such as signing (Batshaw, 2019). Sign language needs to be introduced early and used constantly around the child the same way a spoken language would be used with a child that is not hearing impaired. These interventions would greatly improve the language outcomes for the child. RESPOND TO THIS!!!!